9. Confusing Orders and Lack of Intel
The idea of the invasion was spearheaded by Winston Churchill himself, by then the first Lord of the British Admiralty, believing they were militarily superior to the “sick man of Europe.” Going against the opinion of senior commanders, the head of the British Navy John Fisher, and much of the War Council, who believed that longer planning was needed, the invasion was nonetheless approved and set in February. Joseph Joffre, in charge of the French military command, also opposed the plan of attack. In fact, when Churchill contacted Admiral Carden for his thoughts, he also proposed that a gradual attack might be more appropriate and that immediate execution could be risky.
When a plan, which Carden was prompted to make was ready, Churchill submitted it to the war office. With an unclear decision and details from the War Council, Churchill thought he had been given orders to launch the invasion, while others believed only provisional preparations were to take place. Also, Ian Hamilton, general of the ground forces, arrived on late March knowing very little of the Turkish strength, maps, terrain and military situation. This confusion, coupled with overestimation of the Ottoman Empire as an easy target, would cost dearly to the Allied forces.